注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

阳光

今夜星光失色,只因我,锋芒纵放

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

毕业于机械专业,中级职称,无损射线探伤Ⅱ级证,熟悉压力容器设计、制造的相关法规和标准。 撑握压力容器制造许可的鉴定评审工作,ISO9000--2001鉴定评审工作。曾担任董事长助理、副总经理、压力容器质保工程师等职务,现任副总经理。

网易考拉推荐

压力容器术语(基本术语)  

2011-04-01 16:00:54|  分类: 容器制造 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

1 一般术语

 压力 pressure

标准大气压 standard atmosphere pressure, atm

工程大气压 technical atmosphere pressure, at

环境大气压力 ambient atmosphere pressure

绝对压力 absolute pressure

表压力 gauge pressure

全真空 full vacuum

真空度 degree of vacuum

介质、物料 contents, fluids

流体 fluids
 
2  基本术语
压力容器 pressure vessel

内压容器 vessel under internal pressure

外压容器 vessel under external pressure

真空容器 vacuum vessel

常压容器 atmospheric vessel

固定式压力容器 stationary pressure vessel

移动式压力容器 transportable pressure vessel

元件 part, component

受压元件 pressure part

非受压元件 non-pressure part

建造 construction

腔室 chamber

3 参数

容积 volume

设计压力 design pressure

工作压力 operating pressure

最大允许工作压力 maximum allowable working pressure  (MAWP)

试验压力 test pressure

温度 temperature

设计温度 design temperature

工作温度 operating temperature 

金属温度 metal temperature

试验温度 test temperature

最低设计金属温度 minimum design metal temperature  (MDMT)

环境温度 ambient temperature

月平均最低气温 mean monthly minimum temperature

极端温度 extreme temperature

极端最低温度 extreme minimum temperature

4  释义
4.1  压力

(1)《中国大百科全书  力学》:垂直作用在物体单位面积上的一种力。它存在于固体、液体、气体内部,或是液体与固体壁面之间、或是固体之间的接触面上。习惯上,在力学和多数工程学科中,“压力”一词与物理学中的压强同义。

(2)词条“注”中的内容引自《压力容器设计工程师培训教程》2005,第4.6.1 节 基本概念

(3)在国外文献中,“标准大气压”亦有称 normal atmosphere pressure
    “工程大气压”亦有称engineering (或metric) atmosphere pressure

(4)“真空度”等同采用GB/T 3163—1993 《真空技术术语》的相应词条

4.2  温度

(1)中国大百科全书  机械工程(Ⅱ),1987

        P660,温度  temperature  表示物体的冷热程度。

        P658,温标  temperature scale  温度的数值表示法。

(2) 中华人民共和国电子行业标准电子电源术语及定义(SJ/T 1670—2001)

4.3  环境温度 ambient temperature

(1)《容规》35条:……历年来“月平均最低气温”的最低值。
“月平均最低气温”是指当月各天的最低气温值相加后除以当月天数。
(2)GB 50155—1992 《采暖通风与空气调节术语标准》第2.3.8条 月平均最低温度,一个月逐日最低温度的平均植。第2.3.9条 极端最高温度,一定时段内,逐日最高温度中的最大值,第2.3.10条 极端最低温度,一定时段内,逐日最低温度中的最小值。

(3)HG 20580—1998《钢制化工容器设计基础规定》第3.2.6节“极端气温”。

(4)百度百科:极端温度,一段时间内某一地区达到的最低和最高温度。前者是极端最低温度,后者是极端最高温度。

4.4  物料

我国压力容器技术文件中,容器的盛装物多称为“物料”或“介质”。在国外标准和技术文件中,则为 “contents” 或 “fluids” 或 “substances”。
(1)Dennis R. Moss, Pressure Vessel Design Manual,3rd Edition appendix b design data sheet for vessels “Contents” Often contents Something contained, as in a receptacle: contents常作容纳物:(如容器中)所容纳的东西
(2)“Vessel Specification” of  a Chemicals Limited (某一工程公司)“Vessel Contents”
(3)国务院《特种设备安全监察条例》第八十八条  ……是指盛装气体或者液体,承载一定压力的密闭设备。
(4)欧盟 PED  Article 1

4.5  压力容器

(1)国务院《特种设备安全监察条例》:第八十八条  ……是指盛装气体或者液体,承载一定压力的密闭设备。
(2)ASME Ⅷ-1, U-1(a) (2) Pressure vessels are containers for the containment of pressure, either internal or external.
(3)欧盟 PED  Article 1
2.1  “pressure equipment” means vessels, piping, safety accessories, ……
2.1.1  “vessel” means a housing designed and built to contain fluids under pressure……
2.7  “fluids” means gases, liquids, and vapors in pure phase as well as mixtures thereof. A fluid may contain a suspension of solids.
(4)ISO/DIS 16528  Part 1
2.2  pressure vessel  A housing designed and built to contain gases or liquids under pressure.
(5)GB/T ××××钢制压力容器名词术语(2002年送审稿)

2.2.1  压力容器——压力作用下盛装流体介质的密闭容器。

注1:“密闭”在这里是指:以容器对外连接管口为界限的范围内能够形成一个独立的承压空间。

内压容器——容器在正常操作时,壳体内部压力高于外部者。

外压容器容器——在正常操作时,壳体外部压力高于内部者。

真空容器——在外压容器中,如果容器内部介质静压力(绝对压力)小于一个大气压、在真空条件下工作的容器

2.2.3  固定式压力容器 ——安装在固定位置处使用的压力容器。

注:对于为了某一固定用途、仅在装置或场区内部搬动、使用的压力容器亦应按固定式压力容器建造。

2.2.4   移动式压力容器——安装固定在交通工具上、作为运输装备的压力容器。

注:移动式压力容器包括铁路罐车、汽车罐车、罐式集装箱、长管拖车、管束式集装箱等五大类产品。

4.6  常压容器——与环境大气直接连通或工作(表)压力为零的容器。

注:在我国压力容器标准体系中,设计压力在-0.02~0.1 MPa(G)之间的压力容器称为“常压容器”[ vessel for design pressure between -0.02~0.1 MPa(G) ]。

(1)Dennis R. Moss, Pressure Vessel Design Manual, 3rd EditionAPPENDIX F  VESSEL NOMENCLATURE Classification of Vessels Pressure: Internal. external. atmospheric
(2)在我国压力容器标准体系中,设计压力在-0.02~0.1 MPa(G)之间的压力容器称为“常压容器”。[ vessel for design pressure between -0.02~0.1 MPa(G) ] 在这里,“常压”不应译作“atmospheric”。
(3)GB/T ××××《钢制压力容器名词术语》(2002年送审稿)    
(4)凡承受介质静压力(表压力,不包括介质液柱静压力)等于零或与大气连通的容器统称为常压容器。其中JB/T 4735—1997对圆筒形容器所管辖的设计压力范围为0MPa~<0.1MPa,真空度低于0.02MPa。

4.7  固定式压力容器

(1)《容规》再版草案:固定式压力容器是指安装在固定位置,或者仅在使用单位内部区域使用的压力容器。

(2)ASME Ⅷ-1 2004,  App. 3-2 stationary pressure vessel: a pressure vessel to be installed and operated as a fixed geographical location.

GB/T ××××《钢制压力容器名词术语》(2002年送审稿)

(3)安装在固定位置进行操作的容器,以区别于移动式压力容器。

4.7  移动式压力容器

(1)《压力容器安全技术监察规程》 第6条:移动式压力容器,包括铁路罐车、罐式汽车和罐式集装箱等;
(2)ASME XII   Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks TG-100 INTRODUCTION. TG-100.1 Intent
The riles of this Section constitute requirements for construction and continued service of pressure vessels for the transportation of dangerous goods via highway, rail, air, or water.
(3)EN 13445-1  §1.2  1.2 Exclusions   This European Standard is not applicable to pressure equipment of the following types:
a) transportable pressure equipment;
(4)《移动式压力容器安全技术监察规程》征求意见稿 移动式压力容器的术语与定义

移动式压力容器是指单个或多个压力容器(罐体)与走行装置、定型底盘或者无动力半挂行走机构或者框架等组成,采用永久性连接,适用于铁路、公路、水路或者其联运的运输装备,包括铁路罐车、汽车罐车、罐式集装箱、长管拖车、管束式集装箱等五大类产品。

4.8  腔室 ——容器中介质所在的相对独立的密闭空间。

注1:“密闭”在这里是指:以该腔室对外连接管口为界限的范围内能够形成一个独立的承压空间。
注2:容器在正常操作时,一台容器可以由单个腔室构成,也可由多个腔室组(构)成,如:夹套容器、换热器等。

(1)EN 13445-3:2002 (E) Design    §3.6  chamber:  single fluid space within a unit of pressure equipment
(2)EN 764-1:2004, Pressure equipment- Part 1:Terminology-Pressure, temperature, volume, nominal size  承压设备 名词术语和符号 压力、温度、容积  §3.1  chamber:  fluid space within a unit of pressure equipment   NOTE:  The chambers are not intended to communicate between each other.
(3)《压力容器安全技术监察规程》:第一章 注2:……多腔压力容器(如换热器的管程和壳程、余热锅炉的汽包和换热室、夹套容器等)按照类虽高的压力腔作为该容器的类别并按该类别进行使用管理。但应按照每个压力腔进行类别划定时,设计压力取本压力,容积取本压力腔的几何容积。
(4)97/23/EC  Pressure Equipment Directive (PED)第1条,§2.1.1……。一个容器可以由一个以上腔室组成。§2.5一个腔室的内部体积……,第9条,§3当一个容器由几个腔室组成时,应按各腔室中最高类别进行分类。……

4.9  元件  

(1)组成压力容器的基本单元零件,如各种形状壳体、封头、法兰、垫板、支承圈等。一台完整的压力容器既有受压元件又有非受压元件。

(2)EN 764-1:2004, Pressure equipment- Part 1:Terminology- Pressure, temperature, volume, nominal size 承压设备 名词术语和符号 压力、温度、容积  §3.2 component part of pressure equipment which can be considered as an individual item for the calculation

(3)EN 13445-3:2002 (E) Design   §3.6 component:定义同(1)。

(4)《压力容器设计工程师培训教程》,2005

4.10  受压元件(pressure part)

直接承受压力载荷(包括内压或外压)的容器零部件,指保存、封闭压力介质的容器壳体元件和其他密闭元件,开孔补强圈,外压加强圈等。

4.11 非受压元件(non-pressure part)

为满足使用要求与受压元件直接焊接成为整体而不承受压力载荷的零部件,如支座(或吊耳)及其垫板,保温圈,塔盘支承圈等。

非受压元件通常是承载(非压力载荷)元件。

4.12  建造

(1) ISO/DIS 16528 Part 1 Boilers and Pressure Vessels- Part 1: Performance requirement
§2.5  construction  processes which include design, material specification, manufacture, inspection, examination, testing and conformity assessment of boilers and pressure vessels

(2)ASME VIII-1, 2007, Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels  U-1 (a)(3) This Division contains mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions, and nonmandatory guidance for pressure vessel materials, design, fabrication, examination, inspection, testing, certification, and pressure relief.

(3)包括如下一系列工作的整个过程:材料选择、设计、制造、检验、试验、验收、表面清理和涂覆等。

4.13  容积

(1)《固定式压力容器安全技术监察规程》 (送审稿)
第一章 注2:容积是指压力容器的几何容积,即由设计图样标注的尺寸计算(不考虑制造公差)并且圆整。应当扣除永久连接在容器内部的内件的体积。

(2)欧盟 PED  Article 1
2.5“volume (V)” means the internal volume of a chamber, including the volume of nozzles to the first connection or weld and excluding the volume of permanent internal parts.
(3)EN 764-1:2004, Pressure equipment- Part 1:Terminology- Pressure, temperature, volume, nominal size
承压设备 名词术语和符号 压力、温度、容积
3.17 volume V, v   internal volume of a chamber, including the volume of nozzles to the first connection (flange, coupling, weld) and excluding the volume of internal permanent parts (e.g. baffles, agitators) 

4.14工作压力

(1)本词条等同采用了 GB 150《钢制压力容器》给出的定义。

(2)ASME VIII-1, 2007, App.3:operating pressure: the pressure at the top of a vessel al which it normally operates. It shall not exceed the maximum allowable working pressure, and it is usually kept at a suitable level below the setting of the pressure relieving devices to prevent their frequent opening (see M-9).

(3)“正常工作条件” 见 ASME  VIII-1, 2007, App.3:normal operation: operation within the design limits for which the vessel has been stamped. [Sea UG-1l6(a).] Any coincident pressure and temperature during a specific operation are permissible, provided they do not constitute a more severe condition than that assumed in the design of the vessel.:

(4)EN 764-1:2004, Pressure equipment- Part 1:Terminology-Pressure, temperature, volume, nominal size 承压设备名词术语和符号压力、温度、容积 §3.6  operating pressure PO, po  fluid pressure occurring during specified operating conditions 

(5)在《压力容器安全技术监察规程》1999中,亦称作“最高工作压力”。

4.15工作温度

(1)本词条“工作温度”以压力容器行业中现行的技术含义确定的,同时欧盟标准EN 764-1:2004也是这样定义的。见下面(2)。

在ASME VIII-1中,定义“工作温度”是元件金属所保持的温度,见下面(4)。实际上,相当于GB 150《钢制压力容器》中所说的元件金属温度。

(2)EN 764-1:2004, Pressure equipment- Part 1:Terminology-Pressure, temperature, volume, nominal size  承压设备名词术语和符号压力、温度、容积  §3.7operating temperature TO, to  Fluid temperature occurring during specified operating conditions

(3)“元件的金属温度”引自GB 150《钢制压力容器》,又见:ASME VIII-1, 2007, UG-20 design temperature ,
the maximum temperature used in design shall be not less than the mean metal temperature (through the thickness).

(4)ASME VIII-1, 2007, App.3:operating or working temperature: the temperature that will be maintained in the metal of the part of the vessel being considered for the specified operation of the vessel (see UG-20 and UG-23).

4.16 设计压力

(1)本词条等同采用了GB 150《钢制压力容器》给出的定义。与欧盟EN压力容器标准和美国ASME压力容器标准所给出的定义类似。

(2)ASME VIII-1, 2007, App.3:design pressure: the pressure used in the design of a vessel component together with the coincident design metal temperature, for the purpose of determining the minimum permissible thickness or physical characteristics of the different zones of the vessel. When applicable, static head shall be added to the design pressure to determine the thickness of any specific zone of the vessel.
(3)EN 764-1:2004, Pressure equipment- Part 1:Terminology- Pressure, temperature, volume, nominal size  承压设备名词术语和符号压力、温度、容积§3.10  design pressure PD, pd  pressure at the top of each chamber of the pressure equipment chosen for the derivation of the calculation pressure of each component

4.17设计温度

(1)本词条等同采用了 GB 150《钢制压力容器》给出的定义。与欧盟EN压力容器标准和美国ASME压力容器标准所给出的定义类似。

(2)UG-20 design temperature, ASME VIII-1, 2007, 

(a)Maximum. Except as required in UW-2(d)(3), the maximum temperature used in design shall be not less than the mean metal temperature (through the thickness) expected under operating conditions for the part considered (see 3-2). if necessary, the metal temperature shall be determined by computation or by measurement from equipment in service under equivalent operating conditions

(b)Minimum. The minimum metal temperature used in design shall be the lowest expected in service except when lower temperatures are permitted by the rules of this Division (see UCS-66, TICS-160, and footnote 37, UG116). The minimum mean metal temperature shall be determined by the principles described in (a) above. ……

(3)EN 764-1:2004, Pressure equipment- Part 1:Terminology-Pressure, temperature, volume, nominal size  承压设备 名词术语和符号 压力、温度、容积  §3.11 design temperature TD, td  temperature chosen for the derivation of the calculation temperature of each component

4.18  试验压力 

(1)本词条等同采用了GB 150《钢制压力容器》给出的定义。

(2)ASME VIII-1, 2007, UG-99(b) ...... vessels designed for internal pressure shall be subjected to a hydrostatic test pressure which at every point in the vessel is at least equal to 1.3 times MAWP ......

(3)EN 764-1:2004, Pressure equipment- Part 1:Terminology-Pressure, temperature, volume, nominal size  承压设备 名词术语和符号 压力、温度、容积 §3.14  test pressure PT, pt  pressure to which the equipment is subjected for test purposes

4.19  试验温度 

(1)本词条等同采用了 GB 150《钢制压力容器》给出的定义。

(2)ASME  VIII-1, 2007,  UG-99(h) ...... It is recommended that the metal temperature during hydrostatic test be maintained at least 30°F (17°C) above the minimum design metal temperature, but need not exceed 120°F (48°C), to minimize the risk of brittle fracture. The test pressure shall not be applied until the vessel and its contents are at about the same temperature.

(3)EN 764-1:2004, Pressure equipment- Part 1:Terminology- Pressure, temperature, volume, nominal size  承压设备名词术语和符号压力、温度、容积  §3.15  test temperature TT, tttemperature at which the pressure test of the pressure equipment is carried cut

4.20  最大允许工作压力

(1)本词条参考了 GB 150《钢制压力容器》和ASME VIII-1给出的(MAWP)定义。
GB 150—1998《钢制压力容器》第 B2.1条 “最大允许工作压力  系指在设计温度下,……”仅局限于对应设计温度。在本词条中作了修改。

(2)ASME VIII-1, 2007, App.3 (同时见 UG-98)maximum allowable working pressure. the maximum gage pressure permissible at the top of a completed vessel in its normal operating position at the designated coincident temperature for that pressure:(译文:与该压力相应的标明温度下,在正常操作位置时,成品容器顶部允许承受的最大表压力。)
This pressure is the least of the values for the internal or external pressure to be determined by the rules of this Division for any of the pressure boundary parts, including the static head thereon, using nominal thicknesses exclusive of allowances for corrosion and considering the effects of any combination of loadings listed in UG-22 that are likely to occur (see UG-98) at the designated coincident temperature [see UG-20(a)]. It is the basis for the pressure setting of the pressure relieving devices protecting the vessel. The design pressure may be used in all cases in which calculations are not made to determine the value of the maximum allowable working pressure.
Note 34:  The maximum allowable working pressure may be assumed to be the same as the design pressure when calculations are not made to determine the maximum allowable working pressure.

(3)ASME VIII-1, 2007
UG-98(c) Maximum allowable working pressure may be determined for more than one designated operating temperature, using for each temperature the applicable allowable stress value. (译文:对于一个以上的指定工作温度,可用各相应温度下的许用应力来确定最大允许工作压力(MAWP)。

(4)欧盟标准中的“最大允许压力”(Pmax)相当于ASME VIII中的“最大允许工作压力”:
     EN13445:3-2002,Issue16(2005-10)3.15a   Maximum permissible pressure for normal operating load cases   

     Pressure obtained with the analysis thickness ea at the calculation temperature for a given component, using the relevant design formulae or procedures
     3.15b  Maximum permissible pressure for testing load cases
     Pressure obtained with the minimum possible fabrication thickness emin at the temperature for a given component, using the relevant design formulae or procedures and z=1

[译注] ①analysis thickness ea 即是 GB 150中的有效厚度;

       ② minimum possible fabrication thickness emin  即是GB 150中的(有效厚度+腐蚀裕量)

    ③ z是焊接接头系数

4.21   最低设计金属温度

(1)本词条参考了GB/T ××××—×××× 《钢制压力容器名词术语》(送审稿)中6.1.7最低设计金属温度

ASME VIII-1的定义为:在设计中预期的元件金属平均温度的最低值。同时参考了ASME VIII-1的定义,见(2)

(2)UG-20 design temperature, ASME VIII-1, 2007 
(b)Consideration shall include the lowest operating temperature, operational upsets, autorefrigeration, atmospheric temperature, and any other sources of cooling [except as permitted in (f)(3) below for vessels meeting the requirements of (f) below].
(译文:应考虑最低工作温度,工作中的不正常,自动制冷,大气环境温度,以及其他制冷因素。)
The MDMT marked on the nameplate shall correspond to a coincident pressure equal to the MAWP. When there are multiple MAWP's, the largest value shall be used to establish the MDMT marked on the nameplate. Additional MDMT's corresponding with other MAWP's may also be marked on the nameplate (see footnote 37).
(3)EN 764-1:2004, Pressure equipment- Part 1:Terminology- Pressure, temperature, volume, nominal size  承压设备名词术语和符号压力、温度、容积§3.9 maximum/minimum allowable temperature TS, ts  maximum/minimum temperatures for which the equipment is designed, as specified by the manufacturer.

(4)Dennis R. Moss , Pressure Vessel Design Manual, 3-rd edition, 2004  Procedure 2-17
Not only does every pressure vessel have its owe unique MDMT, but every component of that pressure vessel has an MDMT. The vessel MDMT is the highest temperature of all the component MDMT’s. …….

  评论这张
 
阅读(603)| 评论(1)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017